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Mar 12, 2013

Rare Photos Of Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948

Operation Polo code name for The Hyderabad Police Action was a military operation in September 1948 in which the Indian Armed Forces invaded the State of Hyderabad and ended the rule of Nizam, annexing the state into the Indian Union.

The conflict began after Nizam Osman Ali Khan, Asif Jah VII decided not to join the princely State of Hyderabad to either India or Pakistan after the partition of India. The Nizam's defiance was backed by Qasim Razvi's armed militias, known as Razakars and had the moral support of Pakistan. After a stalemate in negotiations between the Nizam and India, and wary of a hostile independent state in the centre of India, Deputy Prime Minister Sardar Patel decided to annex the state of Hyderabad. He sent the Indian Army and the Hyderabad State Forces were defeated within five days.

Major General Syed Ahmed El Edroos (at right) offers his surrender of the Hyderabad State Forces to Major General (later General and Army Chief) Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri at Secunderabad (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

The operation was called "Operation Polo" because at that time, Hyderabad state had some 17 polo grounds, the largest number in India.


Crowds Cheering Indian Army  (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

SEE COMPLETE GALLERY OF OPERATION POLO / HYDERABAD POLICE ACTION 1948 AFTER THE CONTENT

The State of Hyderabad, located over most of the Deccan Plateau in southern India, was established in 1724 by Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah after the collapse of the Mughal Indian Empire. As was the case in several Indian royal states, the Nizam was a Muslim, while a majority of the subject population was Hindu. In 1798, Hyderabad became the first Indian royal state to accede to British protection under the policy of Subsidiary Alliance instituted by Arthur Wellesley. When the British finally departed from the Indian subcontinent in 1947, they offered the various princely states in the sub-continent the option of acceding to either India or Pakistan, or staying on as an independent state.

The State of Hyderabad under the leadership of its 7th Nizam, Mir Usman Ali, was the largest and most prosperous of all princely states in India. It covered 82,698 square miles (214,190 km2) of fairly homogenous territory and comprised a population of roughly 16.34 million people (as per the 1941 census) of which a majority (85%) was Hindu. Hyderabad State had its own army, airline, telecommunication system, railway network, postal system, currency and radio broadcasting service.

Nizam decided to keep Hyderabad independent. The leaders of the new Union of India however, were wary of having an independent - and possibly hostile - state in the heart of their new country and were determined to assimilate Hyderabad into the Indian Union, even if it were by compulsion, unlike the other 565 princely states, most of which had already acceded to India or to Pakistan voluntarily.

The Nizam of Hyderabad initially approached the British government with a request to take on the status of an independent constitutional monarchy under the British Commonwealth of Nations. This request was however rejected.

When Indian Home Minister Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel requested the Hyderabad Government to sign the instrument of accession, the Nizam refused and instead declared Hyderabad as an independent nation on 15 August 1947, the same day that India became independent. Alarmed at the idea of an independent Hyderabad in the heart of Indian territory, Sardar Patel approached the governor general of India, Lord Mountbatten who advised him to resolve the issue without the use of force.

Accordingly, the Indian government offered Hyderabad a 'Standstill Agreement' which made an assurance that the status quo would be maintained and no military action would be taken. Unlike in the case of other royal states, instead of an explicit guarantee of eventual accession to India, only a guarantee stating that Hyderabad would not join Pakistan was given. Negotiations were opened through K.M. Munshi, India’s envoy and agent general to Hyderabad, and the Nizam’s envoys, Laik Ali and Sir Walter Monckton. Lord Mountbatten, who presided over the negotiations, offered several possible deals to the Hyderabad government which were rejected. The Hyderabadi envoys accused India of setting up armed barricades on all land routes and of attempting to economically isolate their nation. The Indians retaliated by accusing the Hyderabad government of importing arms from Pakistan. Hyderabad had given Rupees 200 million to Pakistan, and had stationed a bomber squadron there.

In June 1948, Mountbatten prepared the 'Heads of Agreement' deal which offered Hyderabad the status of an autonomous dominion nation under India. The deal called for the restriction of the regular Hyderabadi armed forces along with a disbanding of its voluntary forces. While it allowed the Nizam to continue as the executive head of the state, it called for a plebiscite along with general democratic elections to set up a constituent assembly. The Hyderabad government would continue to administer its territory as before, leaving only foreign affairs to be handled by the Indian government.

Although the plan was approved and signed by the Indians, it was rejected by the Nizam who demanded only complete independence or the status of a dominion under the British Commonwealth.

The Nizam also made unsuccessful attempts to seek the arbitration of the President Harry S. Truman of the United States of America and intervention of the United Nations.
Civil unrest in Hyderabad

The 1941 census had estimated the population of Hyderabad to be 16.34 million, over 85% of who were Hindus and with Muslims accounting for about 12%. It was also a multi-lingual state consisting of peoples speaking Telugu (48.2%), Marathi (26.4%), Kannada (12.3%) and Urdu (10.3%). In spite of the overwhelming Hindu majority, Hindus were severely under-represented in government, police and the military. Of 1765 officers in the State Army, 1268 were Muslims, 421 were Hindus, and 121 others were Christians, Parsis and Sikhs. Of the officials drawing a salary between Rs.600-1200 per month, 59 were Muslims, 5 were Hindus and 38 were of other religions. The Nizam and his nobles, who were mostly Muslims, owned 40% of the total land in the state.

Even as India and Hyderabad negotiated, most of the sub-continent had been thrown into chaos as a result of communal Hindu-Muslim riots pending the imminent partition of India. Fearing a Hindu civil uprising in his own kingdom, the Nizam allowed Qasim Razvi, a close advisor, and leader of the radical Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen (MIM) Party, to set up a voluntary militia of Muslims called the 'Razakars'. The Razakars - who numbered up to 200,000 at the height of the conflict - swore to uphold Islamic domination in Hyderabad and the Deccan plateau in the face of growing public opinion amongst the majority Hindu population favouring the accession of Hyderabad into the Indian Union.

As the manpower and arsenal of the Razakars grew, there was an escalation of violence between the Razakars and Hindu communities. In all, more than 150 villages (of which 70 were in Indian territory outside Hyderabad State) were pushed into violence. In Telangana, large groups of peasants, aided by the Communist Party of India and Andhra Mahasabha, revolted against local Hindu and Muslim landlords, and also came into direct confrontation with the Razakars, in what became known as the Telangana Rebellion. Meanwhile, parties like the Hyderabad State Congress were involved in non-violent protests against the Nizam's rule.

On 4 December 1947, Narayan Rao Pawar, a member of a Hindu nationalist organisation called the Arya Samaj, made a failed attempt to assassinate the Nizam outside his palace.

The Nizam of Hyderabad had a large army with a tradition of hiring mercenary forces. These included Arabs, Rohillas, North Indian Muslims and Pathans. The State Army consisted of three armoured regiments, a horse cavalry regiment, 11 infantry battalions and artillery. These were supplemented by irregular units with horse cavalry, four infantry battalions (termed as the Saraf-e-khas, paigah, Arab and Refugee) and a garrison battalion - all forming a total of 22,000 men. This army was commanded by Major General El Edroos, an Arab. 55 per cent of the Hyderabadi army was composed of Muslims, with 1,268 Muslims in a total of 1,765 officers as of 1941.

In addition to these, there were about 200,000 irregular militia called the Razakars under the command of civilian leader Qasim Razvi. A quarter of these were armed with modern small firearms, while the rest were predominantly armed with muzzle-loaders and swords.

It is reported that the Nizam received arms supplies from Pakistan and from the Portuguese administration based in Goa. In addition, additional arms supplies were received via airdrops from an Australian arms trader Sidney Cotton.

As the Indian government received information that Hyderabad was arming itself and was preparing to ally with Pakistan in any future war against India, Sardar Patel described the idea of an independent Hyderabad as an ulcer in the heart of India - which had to removed surgically. In response, Hyderabad's prime minister Laik Ali stated "India thinks that if Pakistan attacks her, Hyderabad will stab her in the back. I am not so sure we would not." Sardar Patel responded later by stating "If you threaten us with violence, swords will be met with swords".

Finally, the Police Action against Hyderabad was started on Monday, 13th September 1948. There was hardly any resistance from the Hyderabad forces. The Indian forces reached the outskirts of the city four days later.

On 16 September, faced with imminent defeat, the Nizam summoned the Prime Minister Mir Laik Ali and requested his resignation by the morning of the following day. The resignation was delivered along with the resignations of the entire cabinet.

On the noon of 17 September, a messenger brought a personal note from the Nizam to India's Agent General to Hyderabad, K.M. Munshi summoning him to the Nizam's office at 1600 hours. At the meeting, the Nizam stated "The vultures have resigned. I don't know what to do". Munshi advised the Nizam to secure the safety of the citizens of Hyderabad by issuing appropriate orders to the Commander of the Hyderabad State Army, Major General El Edroos. This was immediately done.

It was the Nizam's first visit to the radio station. The Nizam of Hyderabad, in his radio speech on 23 September 1948, said "In November last [1947], a small group which had organized a quasi-military organization surrounded the homes of my Prime Minister, the Nawab of Chhatari, in whose wisdom I had complete confidence, and of Sir Walter Monkton, my constitutional Adviser, by duress compelled the Nawab and other trusted ministers to resign and forced the Laik Ali Ministry on me. This group headed by Kasim Razvi had no stake in the country or any record of service behind it. By methods reminiscent of Hitlerite Germany it took possession of the State, spread terror ... and rendered me completely helpless."

Major General El Edroos (at right) offers his surrender of the Hyderabad State Forces to Major General (later General and Army Chief) Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri at Secunderabad

According to the records maintained by Indian Army, General Chaudhari lead an armoured column into Hyderabad at around 4 p.m. on September 18 and the Hyderabad army, led by Major General El Edroos, surrendered.

RARE PHOTOS OF OPERATION POLO / HYDERABAD POLICE ACTION 1948

Razakars, a private militia organized by Qasim Razvi to support the rule of Nizam Mir Osman Ali Khan (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Indian Army Tanks (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)


Major General Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)


Major General Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri talking with Major General Syed Ahmed El Edroos, Commander-in-Chief of the Hyderabad State Forces (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Razakars, a private militia organized by Qasim Razvi to support the rule of Nizam Mir Osman Ali Khan (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi (Kulapati Dr. K. M. Munshi) - Agent-General of India in Hyderabad State (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)


Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic

Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic


Indian Army Tanks (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Major General Syed Ahmed El Edroos, Commander-in-Chief of the Hyderabad State Forces (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)


Last Prime Minister of Hyderabad State Mir Laik Ali (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)


Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic

Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic

Syed Kasim Razvi (Qasim Razvi)- Razakars chief of Hyderabad State, a local militia (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Major General Syed Ahmed El Edroos, Commander-in-Chief of the Hyderabad State Forces (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic

Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic


Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic

Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic


Hyderabad State Forces (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)


Major General Syed Ahmed El Edroos, Commander-in-Chief of the Hyderabad State Forces (R) shaking hands with Lt. General Maharaj Kumar Shri Rajendrasinhji (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)


Major General Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri talking with Major General Syed Ahmed El Edroos, Commander-in-Chief of the Hyderabad State Forces (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic

Last Nizam of Hyderabad Mir Osman Ali Khan with First Indian Union Home Minister, Sardar Vallabhai Patel (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)


Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Major General Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri flank the Nizam of Hyderabad, Mir Osman Ali Khan after he signed the accession to India in September 1948 (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru with last Nizam of Hyderabad Mir Osman Ali Khan (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Last Nizam of Hyderabad Mir Osman Ali Khan (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)


Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic

Mecca Masjid, September 1948 (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Indian Army Tanks (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)


Indian Army Tanks (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)


Crowds Cheering Indian Army (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Charminar Street (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Azam Jah (Prince of Berar) Eldest Son of Last Nizam of Hyderabad, Mir Osman Ali Khan Asif Jah VII (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic

Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic

Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic


Indian Army Vehicles (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic

Major General Syed Ahmed El Edroos, Commander-in-Chief of the Hyderabad State Forces (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic

Hussain Sagar, Tank Bund Road (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi (Kulapati Dr. K. M. Munshi) - Agent-General of India in Hyderabad State (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Hyderabad Town hall (Now The Andhra Pradesh State Assembly), September 1948 (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Major General Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri talking with Major General Syed Ahmed El Edroos, Commander-in-Chief of the Hyderabad State Forces (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Razakars, a private militia organized by Qasim Razvi to support the rule of Nizam Mir Osman Ali Khan (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Hyderabad State Forces (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)


Hyderabad State Forces (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Syed Kasim Razvi (Qasim Razvi)- Razakars chief of Hyderabad State, a local militia (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)


Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic


Razakars, a private militia organized by Qasim Razvi to support the rule of Nizam Mir Osman Ali Khan (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)


Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic


Hyderabad State Forces (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic

Indian Army Tanks (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Indian Army Soldiers (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Nawab Deen Yar Jung Bahadur - Hyderabad Police Commissioner During Operation Polo

Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic

Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic

Indian Army Tanks (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Major General Syed Ahmed El Edroos, Commander-in-Chief of the Hyderabad State Forces (R) shaking hands with Lt. General Maharaj Kumar Shri Rajendrasinhji (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Major General Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri talking with Major General Syed Ahmed El Edroos, Commander-in-Chief of the Hyderabad State Forces (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic

Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic

Razakars, a private militia organized by Qasim Razvi to support the rule of Nizam Mir Osman Ali Khan (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic

Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic

Razakars, a private militia organized by Qasim Razvi to support the rule of Nizam Mir Osman Ali Khan (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Indian Army Soliders (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Razakars, a private militia organized by Qasim Razvi to support the rule of Nizam Mir Osman Ali Khan (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Indian Army Tanks (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Indian Army Vehicles (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Indian Army Vehicles (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Hyderabad State Forces (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Hyderabad State Forces (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Razakars, a private militia organized by Qasim Razvi to support the rule of Nizam Mir Osman Ali Khan (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Hussain Sagar, Tank Bund Road (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic

Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic

Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic

Major General Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri talking with Major General Syed Ahmed El Edroos, Commander-in-Chief of the Hyderabad State Forces (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Major General Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri and Last Nizam of Hyderabad Mir Osman Ali Khan at the King Kothi Palace, Hyderabad (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Last Nizam of Hyderabad Mir Osman Ali Khan receiving first Indian Union Home Minister, Sardar Vallabhai Patel, at the Begumpet Airport, Hyderabad (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Charminar Street (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Last Prime Minister of Hyderabad State Mir Laik Ali
(Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Indian Army Tanks (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Azam Jah (Prince of Berar) Eldest Son of Last Nizam of Hyderabad, Mir Osman Ali Khan Asif Jah VII (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Hyderabad State Forces (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Last Nizam of Hyderabad Mir Osman Ali Khan (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Last Nizam of Hyderabad Mir Osman Ali Khan (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic

Razakars, a private militia organized by Qasim Razvi to support the rule of Nizam Mir Osman Ali Khan (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Major General Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri talking with Major General Syed Ahmed El Edroos, Commander-in-Chief of the Hyderabad State Forces (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic

Hyderabad State Forces (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Indian Army Tanks (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic

Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic

Indian Army Soldier (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Hyderabad State Forces (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)


Major General Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri talking with Major General Syed Ahmed El Edroos, Commander-in-Chief of the Hyderabad State Forces (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Azam Jah (Prince of Berar) Eldest Son of Last Nizam of Hyderabad, Mir Osman Ali Khan Asif Jah VII (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Indian Army Tanks (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic

Indian Army Vehicles (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Major General Syed Ahmed El Edroos (at right) offers his surrender of the Hyderabad State Forces to Major General (later General and Army Chief) Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri at Secunderabad (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Indian Army Vehicles (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Razakars, a private militia organized by Qasim Razvi to support the rule of Nizam Mir Osman Ali Khan (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Indian Army Vehicles (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic

Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic

Hyderabad State Forces (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)


Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic

Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic

Razakars, a private militia organized by Qasim Razvi to support the rule of Nizam Mir Osman Ali Khan (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)


Indian Army Vehicles (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Azam Jah (Prince of Berar) Eldest Son of Last Nizam of Hyderabad, Mir Osman Ali Khan Asif Jah VII (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Indian Army Tanks (Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic)

Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Pic
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45 comments:

  1. the operation was named not for many a polo grounds..... prior to this there was an operation called operation kabaddi.... that was meant to to the nizam's war preparedness. like in kabaddi it will be to tease and test the strength of the opponent. polo is meant to safely land the indian army in the heart in the hyderabad...

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  2. Nice collection and very informative specially being a hyderabadi i m very glad to see first time, thanks

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  3. Salute Sardar Patel, Major General J N Choudhari Lead Indian Army and the Millions of people in Telangana, Marathwada and Hyderabad-Karnataka to have fought for the FREEDOM.
    Telangana will honor all of you and create a fitting memorial museum and start celebrating the 17th September as Liberation day in honor of all of you.

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  4. I really really hope the present Telangana activists do not want to repeat these photos in 2013-2014. After all this Andhras formed an adminitrative state calleed AP and developed Hyderabad and AP into a major industrial/pharma/IT/medical hub in the world. I hope Telangana activists do not disgrace the effort shown in the photos.

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    Replies
    1. who said andhras developed ?? check the old records before 1956.
      Hyderabad was a major industrial/pharma/medical hub in the world. I am sorry for your ignorance

      Delete
    2. The Development of HYD by Andhras c an be readily seen today, thru the (permanent) potholes on roads, perennial overflowing drains, no drinking water in Sept 2013 when we had very good rain fall, no place to walk on roads, no place to park even cycles in front of any bank or Govt Office, no play grounds for children, colleges operating from any 2 BR apt & Schools operating from Toilets, BUT CINEMAS GIVEN TOP PRIORITY. ONLY ANDHERA ANDHRAS CAN CALL THESE MINDLESS HIGH RISE APTS, MALLS, CINEMA HALLS, FLY OVERS AS DEVELOPMENT. IF ANDHRAS CALL THIS DEVELOPMENT, ALL THESE ARE AV AILABLE IN ANY KHEDEGAON & RAMPUR IN INDIA. DO ANDHRAS COMPARE THE DEVELOPMENT IN BANGALORE, CHENNAI, GURGAON, NOIDA,PUNE ETC. & IF THE GROWTH IN HYD IS THE SAME RATE? WHY COULDN'T ANDHRAS DEVELOP PHARMA & IT INDUSTRY IN MADRAS? ADM STAFF COLLEGE WAS DOING EXCELLENT SW BUSINESS & THERE WERE NO ANDHRAS IN ASCI IN 1970s. WHY? ANDHRAS SABOTAGED IDPL, STOLEN ALL THE FORMULAS,SHUT DOWN IDPL, MANAGED TO STOP ITS REVIVAL EVEN THOUGH GOVT WAS PREPARED TO REVIVE & ALL THCSE ARE ANDHRAS DEVELOPMENT. CAN ANHYONE ANSWER WHY ANDHRAS HAVE NOT COMPLETED ANY IRRIGATION PROJECTS IN TELANGANA AREA? WHY THEY HAVE NOT DEVELOPED THEIR REGIONIF THEY WERE GREAT ENTERPRENUERS? WHY DID THEY HAVE TO CHEAT TELANGANA PEOPLE, IN ALL RESPECTS, VIOLATING GENTLEMEN'S AGREEMENT? THEY ARE NOT GENTLEMEN. THEY BETTER UTILISE THEIR GREAT TALENTS & DEVELOP THEIR REGION. IF I WERE TO DECIDE, I WOULD ASK ANDHRAS TO PAY THE DAMAGES TO TELANGANA FOR RUINING & ASK THEM TO SAY WHAT PACKAGE THEY ANDHRA DEMANDED FROMMADRAS WHEN THEY DEMANDED SEPARATE ANDHRA. WHY THEY ARE JUSTIFIED IN DEMANDING SEPARATE & WHY WE ARE NOT JUSTIFIED IN DEMANDING SEPARATE TELANGANA, AFTER SUCH LOOT & PLUNDER B Y CRIMINAL MINDED, CORRUPT & POISONOUS ANDHRAS.
















































































































































































































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  5. Mr Anonymous, What do you mean, if TG separated, will it be moved out of india OR You will be thrown out of HYD..How do you so irrational. People of TG wanted to seperate from Andhrites since AP formation. Looking at 1948 photos HYD, do you still think that HYD developed just because of It is part of AP. It was well developed by that time. Andhrites started Pharma companies because they have money and more importantly HYD weather suites that industry. In Pharma companies 90% are from andhrites, finally what left for RR, Medak and Mnagar dists..just polution. Just because of andhrites greedy mindset nobody like to stay with them, RS and UAndhra will seperate one fine day.

    ReplyDelete
  6. Great Job by Nizam of Hyderabad, Hyderabad was well developed and very advance under Nizam's era and there was no other state in India could compete hyderabad. unfortunately after merging in India hyderabad lost its glory due to currupt politicians.

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  7. Was disappointed not seeing Brigadier Towfiq Ali photo, riding in the jeep behind JN at the corner of Madrasa-i-Aliya. We all cheered when we saw him, in response he stood up in the jeep that was being driven vy an orderly, and saluted us all. What a graceful soldier he was. May god bless him.

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  8. It was nice to look at the photos depicting the Hyderabad's trnasition to democratic rule. Prior to the trnasition Hyderabad was fully developed n independent country, and its rulers Nizam n his cabinets the worthy architects for making it as the most sort after place for all irrespective to caste creed n religiosity. The rulers loved his people and were loved equally by them. All were peaceful and love to coexist with others in the capacity of richness or poorness. When the rulers tried their best to keep the Hyderabad country secular n independent but the fate was stumped by the external powers who havd had different plans which made the rulers abdicate with little of bloodshed n discomfort to the general public. The pictures are the direct answers to this reality that the Nizam for the love of his country n public did not react rather abdicate towards the smooth transition. India gained the most by adding the most developed Hyderabad to its map. But that Hyderabad India could not manage n left it to the political wolfs n hounds who in the name of democracy who butchered the state n rob off the wealth n left it sectariansnism n communalism as the source of lively hood as a way of life hereafter. God Bless Hyderabad n India to live happily n coexistingly for its people irrespective to caste creed n religiosity. Jai Hind

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    Replies
    1. if you look in other states of India the admin record of people is not available and many dept. not in existence till know the thing of yesterday still going on support for public of Hyderabad I will let you know as example there not record past marriages as like in Hyderabad kazaat (kazi) registration office don’t say that andhraites has develop they looted away and captured places advantage still if voice raised in parliament as good opposition is from Hyderabad ,many well named people has come up from Hyderabad from all religions which exist in Hyderabad till today there are many people are coming and getting settled in Hyderabad from all over India telangana govt should as for domicile all other should be sent back to their states at least they should not be in all govt department except telangana person

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  9. This is the story of the invader and the invaded. The point of view of the aggressor is given. India's invasion was against the wishes of the people of Hyderabad. Their wishes were never ever ascertained. Somebody unconnected with Hyderabad made the decisions and the people of Hyderabad suffered. General Choudhry was not a Police Officer to call it a police action. It was a misnomer to hoodwink the world. Ask Pandu Rang Garu he will tell you what a deception it was. They told the world we are sending the troops to help the Nizam against the communists while in fact they came to conquer and capture Hyderabad. Rest is all the occupier's lies.

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    Replies
    1. Yes, its against communists,
      otherwise why they gave Nizam a post as governor of hyderabad?.
      why they named it as 'Operation police action'?
      why they continued on firing communists even after nizam was under control?
      communists themselves stopped fighting after strong instructions by stallin.(still need to dig history)

      Delete
    2. Are you dreaming or what? Stalin gave orders? What rubbish he did not even know the existence of Hyderabad communists. This is the story of lies of communal Hindus from North. People of Hyderabad never wanted this invasion on themselves. Ironically Andhras in their wildest imagination never imagined they would get Hyderabad for free. They came by the hordes to enjoy the amenities of a developed state - Hyderabad. They infiltrated in every thing. For example go to Nizam Sugar Factory. It was infested by Andhras till it was eventually closed down. This was an illegal shameful aggression against all international moms and laws.

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  10. I was very anxious to see photographs of TRIUMPHANT THIRD GRENADIERS ,which was moved from NASIRABAD,VIA PUNE---GHORPADI CANTT TOWARDS SHOLAPUR FRONT,MY FATHER IN LAW WAS ONE OF THE COMPANY COMMANDERS,WITH A TROOP OF THREE TANKS,ALSO UNDER HIS COMMAND,LT COL DV TANKSALE ( now RETIRED AND 99 YEARS YOUNG !STILL ) ( then MAJOR ).I THOUGHT I COULD SHOW SOME OF HIS PALTAN'S ( TRIUMPHANT THIRD )PHOTOGRAPHS,BUT ALAS,NEVER MIND,VERY NICE TO HAVE NOSTALGIA...OF LATE SARDAR VALLABHBHAI PATEL'S PRUDENT ACTION,UNDER GENERAL JN CHAUDHARI Sir,great success,without much or hardly any blood loss...OPERATION POLO !....MAJOR RAVI JOSHI,IN MUMBAI,9881396737;9619700869.......IF ANY ONE STILL REMEMBERS THIS HYDERABAD POLICE ACTION,AND HAS A FEW PHOTOGRAPHS OF 3RD GRENADIERS,I WOULD BE TOO GLAD TO SHOW THE SAME ,TO MY F..in..LAW,22ND august 2013 .

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  11. It is a simple case of overpowering a well advanced and flourishing state by a large but hungry nation. The result is here to see, Hyderabad, whose treasury was twice that of India (well! This was the motivation & not the religious divide in its own rule) has been marginalized to the present poor state under the 'Republic of India'. While we can be blown over by jingoistic nationalism, the pictures reveal that even ladies and small children tried their best to save their nation, but failed!! It is a wake-up call, you can have a strong economy, but if you don't have a delivering army, all is lost!! So gear up for China!! Jai Hind!!

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    1. Every Muslim ruled state in India/elsewhere built their treasury with looted wealth as taught by their Founder- Plunder, loot, rape destroy. so it is no surprise this 3rd rate Nizam had so much wealth.

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  12. Capt (Retd) S DhwarakhanathanAug 24, 2013, 1:10:00 PM

    Excellent Collections, worth printing as an album with a detailed operational account!
    Would love to see such photos of all private armies of all maharajas.
    Capt (Retd) S Dhwarakhanathan

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  13. 'A Soldier Speaks': Code name given for this operation was OP ‘POLO’ by Maj Gen J N Chaudhuri. Why POLO ? Named in the memory of numerous polo games played by officers of elite Indian Army in Secunderabad (Twin city of Hyderabad) . Having carried out an appreciation, it was decided to muster troops located in nearby areas. Three and a half infantry battalions and two troops of tanks were earmarked. The actual Cordon / Investment operation was code named OP ‘KABADDI’.First AND ONLY classical Swift Mech Op involving ALL ARMS CONCEPT & Unified/Joint command in the Indian Combat history annals.Indian Mech Forces especially AC 'm afraid has failed to give importance tp OP ‘POLO’ over the last 60 years !Wonder if photos of participating Gorkhas could be dug from the Archives and posted on the net.Excellent Collection & Effort. Keep it up.

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  14. Excellent collection. Nice photographs. Many people know the history of Hyderabad state. The photographs and comment ray gives them an account of accession of Hyderabad state in India.The photos also gives a glimpse of life style and the state of Hyderabad state in the year 1948. Those who say we have developed should realize that before they have their own state in 1953, this region has existed for hundreds of years as an independent state with vibrant capital city of Hyderabad with modern paraphernalia. It this development that had shown the seeds of greed in the minds of dirty andhras to make their capital and rob of its riches. The gullible telangana people had fallen to their sweet talk of one language and promises to give their due share in the administration, politics etc in the name of gentle men agreement etc. I am glad that Telangana people had awaken at last to the cheating tactics of andhra fellows at last. But still some fools left in Telangana who fall prey to the sweet words of andhra fellows and talk of dividing the nation etc. All must remember that andhra AND tELANGANA are going to part of India only after formation of Telangana but only the andhra dirty politicians, brokers,pimps cannot have much say in deciding the destiny of Telangana people and their control over the telangana resouces will be very limited if not altogether eliminate. Jai Hind, Jai Telangana Gandra Mohan Rao

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  15. The pics are all muddled, as if someone dropped a whole bunch of printed photos and then couldn't figure out the order of the photos or which labels went with which photos. But remarkable photos from LIFE!

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  16. Great day it was - recall joining the joyous crowd walking all the way beyond Patancheru to receive the Indian Army headed by Major Gen J N Chowdhry - got lifts in army trucks and jeeps on return ! (Longest distance ever in my life). Memorable day indeed; later I had occasion to meet with Maj J N Chowdhry and Mrs Aruna Chowdhry along with State Congress Youth volunteers . Suffering we experienced under Razakars of Kazim Razvi came to an end at last Sri K M Munshi, and Sri M K Vellodi ICS as Civil Administator helped a lot to restore confidence among the common people ! Old memory recalled by Octogenarian of the city on seeing the photos !!!!

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  17. This operation was possible due to Sardar Vallabhai Patel,then Home Minister.The need of the hour was to get the Nizam to join India but being a muslim dominated state he fell to the wrong advice by Pakistan rulers.Congratulations to the Indian Army who successfully launched Op""POLO"" and without any bloodshed.
    Hyderabad could easily be be seen as a advanced state,with excellent infrastructure and also peace amongst the people.Indian govt should have learnt a lesson in governance but we find that the Indian leadership neglected their basic duty towards its people.They only worried about their selfish ends and politics of divIde and rule ,learnt very well from the Britishers.The poor are getting poorer and the politicians/beauracrats/police are looting the country .It is a shame that after so many years of independence we are still governed by foreigners.What a SHAME COUNTRYMEN.Mahatma Gandhi would never have allowed such a situation to ever come in INDIA but they eliminated him and Subhash Chander Bose .His death is still a mystery .WHY??? How did Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri die-Mystery and Congress is mum.The Chinese Attacked INDIA but even after 51 yrs ,Hendersons BROOKS report IS STILL HIDDEN FROM THE PUBLIC.Why NAMES OF PERSONS HAVING BLACK MONEY IN SWISS BANKS NOT PUBLISHED AND action to get it back-Crores have been embezzled by Politicians and friends in 2G,CWG,COALGATE SCAMS and not recovered.Income tax is being paid by common man and the CORPORATE world is given exemptions in Crores.Criminals are ruling and they eliminate any voices raised.The Armed Forces are demoralised because of Political incompetence where Pakistan ,China and now Myamanar is also crossing LOC and the Govt is silent.IS there any National Spirit.The people will stand up and then it will be too late-The common man is living in poverty and the Elected members are enjoying pay & Allowances highest in the country ,without any Pay Commission,Fully subsidised food -chiken-Fish-Mutton etc at 5% of the price in the market and subsidised by the Railway Ministry .Question is HOW CAN THESE MPs DO THIS and get away??? WHY NO CLEAR INFORMATION FROM GOVT.WAKE UP INDIA-NOT FOR YOURSELF BUT FOR THE POOR MAN-AAM AADMI.JAI HIND

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    1. calling it bloodless is wrong. the estimate of those killed by the Indian army and the Hindu fanatics was very high. It was bad enough that the reports of atrocities has yet to be made public. The death toll by some estimate was quarter of million--quoted by Dalrymple.

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  18. कटुए मादरचोद

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    1. ask your mom, she said she really enjoyed them.

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  19. Nice photographs.My parents and grandparents are witness to the police action in Hyderabad.The Razakars created a terror atmosphere towards only hindus. My grand parents and parents used to mention how everyday round the clock they used to be prepared to fight the Razakars with knives, sticks and mirchipowder to defend themselves. Before police action,the state of Hyderabad had only two classes, the very rich and the poor. The Hindus were mostly poor.

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    1. your parents and grandparents are biggest liers of this world as razakars means the advisers of hyd how can they attack normal people the attackers are the hindus who wants to grab and loot the property on that occasion they are just looting normal people in thr name of operation polo

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    2. Allauddin Khan - I've heard it too from my grandparents! It is a fact that fanatical Razakars under Kasim Rizvi did create terror. I know this to be true because my grandparents worked for the Hyderabad State, One as the Medical Officer - Hyderabad City and another as the Deputy Sup. of Police - Hyderabad City. You are just being a stupid & ignorant fool based on your religious denomination. Anyway this entire episode is more than 65 years old, needn't get worked up now about it. Were any of your Khandaan part of the Razakars? Why are you trying to defend them?! Please find out the truth, from the right sources.

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    3. razakars are always razakars. in 1948 or in 1971 Bangladesh. They only knows how to kill and rape.

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  20. It was very nostalgic to see these historic photographs and read the interesting narrative of those troubled times. I was about 7 years old and i have vivid memories of those times,the fear mania that gripped the Hindu population and the great mass exodus of many many brahamin families from Telengana to Andhra towns like Bezwada, Guntur, Eluru and several small villages in Krishna district to escape the atrocities of the Razakaars. I hope that the present Hate Andhra campaign of the over zealous Telenganites does not repeat the strife amongst the Telugu speaking people.

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  21. Historical pictures shows the complex matters of rulers their rules and their defeats!

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  22. ACCORDING TO FAMOUS BOOK WRITTEN BY AMERICAN "THE FALL OF HYDERABAD" TOTAL NUMBER OF MUSLIMS KILLED BY INDIAN FORCES WERE THREE LACS (300,000). HOW THIS BRUTAL ACTION CAN BE JUSTIFIED.

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    1. And what is the number of innocent people killed by the razakars in Bangladesh 1970-71 ???

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  23. Whatever infrastructure is in Hyderabad owes its existance to Nizams state. Later the corrupt to the core Indian politicians have squandered the money and 30% of Hyderabad city population still lacks basic sanitation including toilets. The slogan of corporate bania is to get cell phone to every rikshshawala for profits. Hydarabad remains the cess pool of filth and corruption.

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  24. It is nice to see images of my late Great Grandfather General El Edroos. The only thing I could say is that he was deeply in love with Hyderabad and did the best within his capacity to ensure its safety. May his soul rest in peace.

    Mohammad

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    1. I am keen to know more about your Great Grandfather. Wikipedia does not give too many details about him. Why don't you update that?

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    2. The fact that General El Edroos surrendured without even putting up any resistance was due to the orders he received. As a soldier, he obeyed his "Prince,"

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  25. Very good collection, good to see the infra of Hyderabad in 1948!!

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  26. at the time of police action , hyderabad look golden, now its like dust bin

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  27. Hyderabad..Nizam"s surrender...in 1948....

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  28. Great Collection! Seeing pictures is like Best History lesson in my life. Thanks LIFE

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Item Reviewed: Rare Photos Of Operation Polo / Hyderabad Police Action 1948 Description: Rating: 5 Reviewed By: Syamala Gowri
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